PDF Making Schools Work: New Evidence on Accountability Reforms

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This study has two main objectives: Examine the contextual realities of primary school leadership in Kenya, and highlight the tasks performed by primary school head teachers. The study asks:. The first part of this study uses qualitative document analysis to systematically analyze the contents of key government policy documents. The objective is to ensure consistent analysis of government policies.

Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. The government policy documents include, Sessional Paper No. This will be a descriptive analysis of SSME data. The data is designed to let school leaders learn what is currently going on in their schools.

SSME data are collected via direct classroom and school observation; student assessments; and interviews with parents, teachers, principals, and parents. The sample includes 8, head teachers. The survey sought to determine which classes head teachers teach, how many hours they teach, how often they provided instructional support for teachers, who was responsible for teacher observations, etc. Most research and literature on leadership preparation and development is mostly based on the developed world Harber and Davies, ; Lungu, As countries embark on training and development of school leaders it is important to establish what needs stem from the work they do.

What Makes a Politician Tackle Education?

This paper provides a starting point to identify the gap in the expectations and practice of primary school leadership. Brown L. Bruns, B. Washington, D. Chapman, D. De Grauwe, A. Glassman, D. World Bank, Washington, DC. Harber, C. School Management and Effectiveness in Developing Countries. London: Cassell.

Lungu, G. Some critical issues in the training of educational administrators for developing countries of Africa.

International Journal of Educational Development 3 1 , 85— Mugo, J. Ruto Eds. Lexington Books Oplatka I. Republic of Kenya. National Education Sector Plan. Nairobi: Government Printer. Nairobi: Ministry of Education. Curriculum Innovation Network 4. Inclusive Education Network 5. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures. Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education Network 8. Research on Health Education Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement Network Teacher Education Research Network Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance Network Philosophy of Education Network ISBN alk.

Educational tests and measurements—United States. Educational accountability—United States. Public schools—United States—Examinations.

Caribbean CoP

School improvement pro-grams. Educational leadership. Filmer, Deon. Patrinos, Harry Anthony. B78 Contents viiBoxes 2. Models 5. Schooling is a basic service that most citizens expectfrom their governments, but the quality available is quite variable, and theresults too often disappointing. What will it take for schools in developingcountries to deliver good quality education?

The World Development Report developed a conceptual framework toanalyze the kind of government and market failures in service delivery thatexist in a large number of developing countries: weak accountability leadingto poor motivation and inadequate incentives for performance.

That reportproposed a set of approaches to remedy those failures that rely on strongeraccountability mechanisms.

Harry Anthony Patrinos - Google Scholar Citations

But the empirical evidence supporting thoseapproaches was limited—and uncomfortably so. Over several years, World Bank researchers and project staff haveworked with academic researchers and their counterparts in governmentand civil society to remedy this evidence gap.

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Their studies isolate andmeasure the impacts of reforms and expand the evidence base on the bestmethods for improving school effectiveness, especially through betterinformation, devolution of authority, and stronger incentives for teachers. This volume is a systematic stock-taking of the evidence on schoolaccountability reforms in developing countries. It provides a measured andinsightful review and assessment of the results of a variety of approachesthat developing countries are experimenting with in their quest for better ix Improvingthe effectiveness of social service delivery is clearly one such issue.

MakingSchools Work sets a standard for future efforts to assess the effectiveness ofpolicy reforms. World BankWashington, D. The study grew out of a cross-country researchprogram launched in with generous support from the government ofthe Netherlands through the Bank—Netherlands Partnership Program. Thatresearch program expanded with the launch of the Spanish ImpactEvaluation Fund SIEF in and the establishment of a formal clusterof work on education reforms aimed at strengthening accountability.

Thisbook is above all a stocktaking of evidence emerging from the wave of newimpact evaluations that the World Bank and partner countries have beenable to launch thanks to this global funding support. For the initial inspiration to step up knowledge generation from WorldBank operations through rigorous evaluation, the authors are grateful toPaul Gertler, former World Bank chief economist for human development HD. For the idea of focusing on education reforms in developing countriesthat tested the accountability framework of the World DevelopmentReport, the authors are grateful to current HD chief economist, Ariel Fiszbein.

Bruce Ross-Larsen provided xi The team was guided and supervised by ElizabethKing and Ariel Fiszbein.

Barbara Bruns

Any and all errors that remain inthis volume are the sole responsibility of the authors. She is currently co-managingseveral impact evaluations of teacher pay for performance reforms in Braziland is lead author of Achieving World Class Education in Brazil: The Next Agenda His research has spanned the areas of education, health, social protection,and poverty, and he has published extensively in these areas. Recentpublications include papers on the impact of scholarship programs onschool participation in Cambodia; on the roles of poverty, orphanhood, anddisability in explaining education inequalities; and on the determinants offertility behavior.

His current research focuses on measuring andexplaining inequalities in education and health outcomes and evaluating xiii He received hisPh.

He manages impact evaluations in LatinAmerica focusing on school-based management, parental participation,compensatory education, and savings programs. Hereceived a doctorate from the University of Sussex. That grants intended for schoolsarrive with most of the funds siphoned off by intermediate layers ofadministration?

That national school systems function without the periodictests that would reveal how little students are learning over time andacross districts? These are not the only problems facing education systems in the devel-oping world, but they are some of the most egregious—and in some sense,puzzling. While inadequate funding may be the biggest challenge thatdeveloping countries face, the proximate cause of the phenomena observedabove is not a lack of resources.

The teacher is in the classroom, his salarypaid.